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Invasion of the Peninsula

Battle of Dam No. 1


Advance to Richmond

Seven Days Battles

Army of The Potomac, 18 May 1862

Army of The Potomac, 8 Mar 1862 1862

Staff Ride Peninsula Campaign


A staff ride of the Peninsula Campaign will provide a study of the conduct of the campaign at the operational and tactical level of war. Those attending should gain a general knowledge of the conduct of the campaign and develop an understanding of how terrain influences the conduct of campaigns and battles. The staff ride will also visit sites which will show the integration of different aspect of war, to include, Army-Navy coordination and the integration of the different combat arms with combat support and combat service support assets. The success of the staff rides depends upon how much research each of the students complete prior to the staff ride. This will enable the students to participate in the discussion of the battle.


  • White House Landing
  • Tunstall Station
  • Bottom’s Bridge
  • Battle of Seven Pines
  • Lunch (forage)
  • Seven Days Battles:
    • Beaver Dam Creek
    • Gaines Mill
    • Savage Station
    • White Oak Swamp
    • Glendale
    • Malvern Hill



May BG Benjamin Franklin Butler assumed command of the Union Department of Virginia atFortress Monroe.

24 May MG John Bankhead Magruder assumed command of the Confederate Army of the Peninsula at Yorktown.

10 Jun Battle of Big Bethal. Union attack on Confederate redoubt was repulsed. Magruder ordered the construction of three lines of defense across the Peninsula. Benjamin Stoddard Ewell, pre-war president of the College of William and Mary, supervised the construction of the 3rd Magruder Line across the peninsula at Williamsburg

1 Jul McClellan assumed command of the troops around Washington, D.C.

7 Aug Magruder had his troops burn Hampton to prevent the Union from housing contraband there.

17 Aug MG John E. Wool replaced Butler as the Commander of the Department of Virginia.

1 Nov General Winfield Scott retired and MG George B. McClellan was promoted to Commander-in-chief of the Army then organized and trained the Army. McClellan had command over all arimies except the Department of Virginia at Ft Monroe.

1 Dec President Lincoln informally proposed a plan of attack along rail lines to Centreville

20 Dec Joint Committee of Congress on the conduct of the war appointed.

21 Dec McClellan became sick with typhoid fever. He is bed ridden for weeks.


10 Jan Lincoln received a telegram from MG Henry W. Halleck in Missouri, “No operations can begin on this time.” Concerned over the inactivity of his armies, pressure from Congress and shortage of war funds, Lincoln visited McClellan at his home. McClellan, sick in bed, refused to see the President.

11 Jan Lincoln called for a war council with his cabinet, BG William B. Franklin and BG Irvin McDowell. Lincoln said, “If something was not soon done, the bottom would be out of the whole affair; and, if General McClellan did not want to use the army, he would like to ‘borrow it,’ provided he could see how it could be made to do something.” Lincoln’s cabinet urged him to take charge of the military affairs. McDowell recommended that Lincoln organize the Army of the Potomac into corps and move it against Confederate forces under MG Joseph Johnston at Centreville.

12 Jan McClellan learned of the meeting and visited the President.

13 Jan Lincoln held another war council this time with McClellan. McClellan told the president that he had a plan for an offensive but wanted to keep it a secret. Lincoln accepted that answer. McClellan confided secretly to Treasury Secretary Salmon P. Chase that he could not trust Lincoln with his plan to invade Virginia because it would end up in the press. McClellan’s concern with secrecy kept his plans from all but a few of his officers

27 Jan Due to McClellan’s continued inactivity. President Lincoln issued General Order Number 1 for the advance of all naval and land forces by 22 Feb.

31 Jan Special Order No. 1. President Lincoln directed that the Army of the Potomac, after providing for the safety of Washington, DC, launch an offensive to occupy the railroad south of Manassas Junction prior to 22 Feb.

3 Feb McClellan objected to Lincoln’s order in a letter to the Secretary of War and proposed his own Urbanna Plan for an attack upon Richmond. Lincoln consented to the plan but did

27 Feb McClellan gave orders to collect enough transports for his invasion

8 Mar CSS Virginia sunk USS Congress and Cumberland. McClellan let his general officers vote on his plan or that of the President’s. The officers preferred his plan. Lincoln organized the Army of the Potomac into five corps and appointed the corps commanders without consulting McClellan. MG Joseph Johnston evacuated his Confederate troops out of Centreville and Manassas and moved them east. This forced McClellan to alter his Urbanna plan to invading the Peninsula at Ft Monroe. His plan required an army of 145,000 men plus 10,000 in the division already at Ft Monroe

9 Mar Battle of the USS Monitor and the CSS Virginia at Hampton Roads. Johnston evacuated batteries on the Potomac.

11 Mar Lincoln reduced McClellan to commander of the Army of the Potomac for the campaign. McClellan learned of it through newspapers the next day.

13 Mar McClellan’s war council adopted Ft Monroe as its base of operations

Invasion of the Peninsula

17 Mar BG Charles Hamilton’s Division of III Corps embarked from Alexandria for Ft Monroe. McClellan decided to deploy a division at a time as transports became available.

22 Mar BG Fitz John Porter’s Division of III Corps embarked with BG Samuel P. Heintzelman for Ft Monroe.

1 Apr McClellan departed for Ft Monroe. The Army of Potomac began landing at Ft Monroe with BG Porter and BG Charles Hamilton’s Divisions of BG Heintzelman’s III Corps and BG John Sedwick’s Division of BG Edwin Sumner’s II Corps. BG William “Baldy” Smith and BG Darius N. Couch’s Divisions of BG Erasmus Keyes’ IV Corps landed at Newport News Point. Wool’s Department of Virginia was recently placed under McClellan’s command.

2 Apr McClellan arrived at Ft Monroe. McClellan reported that five divisions plus BG Syke’s brigade of Regulars had arrived bringing his force to 53,000 men. However, there were not enough wagons available to move all the troops forward. Department of Virginia withdrawn from McClellan’s command

3 Apr Based upon the inaccurate Cram map, McClellan ordered Heintzelman’s III Corps and Sumner’s II Corps to march their corps up the Yorktown Road to Yorktown and Keyes’ IV Corps up the Warwick-Williamsburg Road to Halfway House to cut off Yorktown’s lines of communication.

4 Apr Sunny but rained in the afternoon. At 0600, Keyes began his march 12 miles up to Young’s Mill along Magruder’s first line of defense and bivouacked. Keyes reported, “The enemy’s works at Youngs Mill are so strong that with 5,000 men he might have stopped by two divisions there a week. . . .“ Sedwick’s Division halted at Howard’s Bridge.

McClellan received a telegram informing him that BG Irwin McDowell’s I Corps (43,000 men) was withdrawn from his command to defend the capital. This reduced McClellan’s expected force from 155,000 men by one third. McClellan counted on this corps to clear the rebel position on the James River.

5 Apr Rain. At 0600, the Army of the Potomac began its march. Heintzelman’s III Corps reached Yorktown by the afternoon. At 1000, Keyes IV Corps ran into a fort with three guns at Lee’s Mill on Magruder’s 2nd Line. As Baldy Smith encountered Lee’s Mill he reported to Keyes, “Flames appeared on all sides, we shall not be able to reach the Half-Way House on the Yorktown-Williamsburg road today. . . ” Keyes reported back to McClellan, “Magruder is in a strongly fortified position behind the Warwick River, the fords to which have been destroyed by dams, and the approaches to which are through dense forests, swamps, and marshes. No part of this line as discovered can be taken without an enormous waste of life.” Magruder marched his men around in the open exposing them at various points across the entire line to give the impression that his force was larger than it was. Allen Pinkerton’s spies and Thaddeous Lowes’ balloon also reported inaccurate numbers. Magruder was hailed as the “Master of Ruses and Strategy.” Keyes established his headquarters at the Warwick Court House. Magruder established his hadquarters at Lee Hall Mansion.

McClellan 58,000: McGruder 15,000 McClellan assumed McGruder had between 15,000 and 20,000 and could be reinforced by Confederate troops at Norfold.

6 Apr Rain McClellan shifted his supply base to mouth of Cheeseman Creek and the mouth of the Poquosin River 8 miles east of Yorktown

7 Apr Rain

8 Apr Rain

10 Apr Drizzle. D. H. Hill’s Division of Johnson’s Army of Virginia arrived on the Peninsula. Others followed. BG Joseph Hooker’s Division of Heintzelman’s III Corps arrived at Ship’s Point and BG Isreal B. Richardson’s Division of Sumner’s II Corps arrived at the front.

11 Apr McClellan asked Lincoln for and was given BG William B. Franklin’s Division of McDowell’s I Corps.

14 Apr. Rain at night.

16 AprGood weather. BG Silas Casey’s Division had enough wagons to move up from Newport News Point.

Battle of Dam No. 1.

0600. 3rd (Hyde) and 4th (Stoughton) Vermont broke camp and advanced to positions to begin skirmish. CPT Thaddeus Mott’s 3rd New York Battery opened fire. 1000. Lt Noyes of BG V. T. H. Brooks’ brigade staff, “Baldy” Smith’s Division, IV Corps, made a reconnaissance of the water below dam. It was waist deep. 1500. D, F Co.s of 3rd Vermont crossed stream with support by E, K Co.s under the command of CPT Harrington. Ammo became wet as they crossed. They drove 15th North Carolina from their initial line of rifle pits. This was the 15th’s first day in the trenches. Their commander, LTC William McKinney, was killed trying to rally them. Only CPT Alonzo Hutchinson knew of the prearranged signal, wave a white handkerchief given to him by Brooks, for the reinforcements. He was mortally wounded in the fight. They sent back a runner. Word did not reach Brooks. BG Howell Cobb, Commander of 2nd Brigade or Cobb’s Legion, rode up to rally the defenders. COL Anderson’s Brigade led the 7th Georgia (Wilson), 8th Georgia (Lamar), 5th Louisiana in a bayonet charge. Vermont held for 40 minutes. Hyde sent word to withdraw. They withdrew under withering fire. Engaged: 192, KIA 32, WIA 121, PW 8 BG L. McLaws upon hearing the increased volume of fire ordered his men to reinforce the dam. 10th Louisiana, 15th Virginia and 4 Co.s of 17th Mississippi reinforced 15th North Carolina. 15th Alabama remained as reserve. 10th Louisiana (Marigry) also arrived.

17 Apr Johnston arrived and assumed command of the Peninsula. “No one but McClellan would have hesitated to attack. The fight for Yorktown must be one of artillery, in which we cannot win. The result is certain; the time only doubtful.” Johnston wanted to withdraw his army back to Richmond where it would shorten its lines of communication and join up with ther forces making it stronger while forcing McClellan to spread his army out extending his lines of communication. Casey’s Division arrived at the front.

20 Apr Rain.

21 Apr Rain.

22 AprRain. Franklin’s Division of McDowell’s I Corps arrived at Cheeseman’s Creek. McClellan planned for Franklin to land and take Gloucester Point.

23 Apr Weather cleared.

26 Apr Rain. McClellan appointed BG John F. Porter, director of siege of Yorktown.

30 Apr Rain.

1 May Drizzle. Federal Battery No. 1 opened on the wharves of Yorktown and Gloucester upon receiving word that the enemy was receiving artillery stores.


3 May McClellan’s siege was expected to begin on 5 May. Confederates unleashed a tremendous artillery bombardment then at night Johnston’s forces abandoned the 2nd Magruder Line

4 May Heavy rain in the afternoon. By early morning, the Union Army realized the Confederates had left. The Union regiments raced to raise their colors atop the abandoned fortifications. The Union forces then pursued.

By noon, Johnston’s force had reached Williamsburg. He ordered them to continue onto Richmond with Magruder in the lead and MG James Longstreet’s Division as the rear guard. Johnston also ordered McLaws’ Division to join Magruder’s Division. McLaws was the only other general with a thorough understanding of the 3rd Magruder Line. Longstreet placed BG Richard H. Anderson with two brigades in command of the forts around Williamsburg. The reboubts near Cub Creek Dam were overlooked.

BG George Stoneman’s Cavalry ran into the rear of Johnston’s Army at the Halfway House on the Lee’s Mill Road. Union discovered Confederate land mines (developed by BG Gabriel J. Raines) along the way.

5 May Battle of Williamsburg. Rain

McClellan supervised the embarkation of forces and equipment. He planned to land Franklin’s Division at West Point to cut off the Confederate retreat but bad weather delayed their movement up the river.

MG Johnston established his headquarters at the Vest House at the end of Gloucester Road in Williamsburg

At 0530, BG Joseph Hooker’s Division of III Corps ran into Longstreet at Fort Magruder on the Lee’s Mill/Hampton Road. A quarter of a mile of fallen trees formed tangled abitis in front of the Confederate infantry and artillery hidden inside the redoubts. At 0600, Hooker’s pickets advanced across the open ground to drive back Anderson’s pickets. At 0700, Major Charles Wainwright’s artillery opened fire. At 0730, BG Cuvier Grover and BG Francis Patterson’s Brigades deployed on line and advanced through the woods. Anderson and BG Roger A. Pryor deployed against Hooker. Regiments on both sides struggled back and forth until about noon. By midmorning, Longstreet reinforced Anderson with A. P. Hill and George Pickett’s Brigades turning Hooker’s left back on the Lee’s Mill Road. Exhausted and low on ammunition, Hooker’s two lead brigades fell back under pressure from the fresh Confederate troops. Hooker committed his reserve, BG Daniel Sickle’s New York Excelsior Brigade. Having suffered heavy casualties, they too fell back. Wainwright’s artillery could not extract itself from the mud and was abandoned to the enemy. At 1300, Heintzelman arrived ahead of his IV Corps and helped bring order to the panic by ordering the band to play a marching tune.

Sumner established his headquarters at the Whittaker House on the Yorktown Road. His men of the II Corps and those from III and IV Corps advanced up that road. Sumner learned from a contraband that four redoubts on the Confederate left flank were empty. “Baldy” Smith of IV Corps sent CPT Stewart, Eng, with 4 co.s of 4th Vermont to ascertain the topography. He discovered the unoccupied Redoubts No. 11 and 14 overlooking Cub Creek Dam and reported back to Smith at 1000. At 1100, Smith ordered Hancock’s brigade to occupy them. LT George Custer and the 5th Wisconsin and 6th Maine under MAJ Larabee reached Redoubt No. 14 at about 1200. Hancock left a small covering force there then ordered his brigade forward to Redoubt No. 11 a mile and a half north of Ft Magruder. Hancock deployed the 5th Wisconsin on the right of his artillery and the 6th Maine and 49th Pennsylvania on the left with skirmishers in the woods on the flanks and forward. Finding the flank wide open, he ordered his brigade to advance south toward Redoubts No. 9 and 10. Colonel John Bratton saw the movement and ordered the 6th South Carolina from the reserve to occupy the redoubts. The battle raged while Hancock waited for his request for reinforcements that he had passed on to Keyes, his corps commander. At 1430, Hancock received a message from Sumner to pull back to his original position and hold. Angered, Hancock decided to wait until 1630 then if no relief arrived then he would obey the order.

At 1300, Couch’s Division arrived up the Yorktown Road. BG John J. Peck’s Brigade deployed to Hooker’s right and occupied the center line.

While Sumner delayed, BG Philip Kearney’s Division of II Corps hurried up the Hampton Road to join Hooker. “I am a one-armed New Jersey son-of-a-gun, follow me!” As his men advanced under fire he was heard to encourage them, “Don’t worry boys, they’re shooting at me, not at you.” They arrived in time to stabilize the front. At 1530, Kearney sent three regiments to join BG William H. Emory, commander of one of the cavalry brigades, in his flanking movement up the Quarterpath Road. They reached the unoccupied Redoubt Number 1 but turned back thinking they did not have the strength to hold it.

Longstreet learned of Hancock’s flanking movement. He had earlier requested help from MG D. H. Hill’s Division. When Hill arrived, Longstreet sent his Division up to the two redoubts. Hearing the battle rage on the other side of the woods, Hill and BG Jubal Early, brigadier commander, saw a chance to flank Hancock from the west. Hill led the 5th and 23rd NC on the right and Early led the 24th and 38th Virginia through the woods on the left to flank the Union position. At 1700, Hancock finally ordered his brigade to fall back. Early and the 24th Virginia became disoriented moving through the woods and came out 600 yards in the open directly in front of 7th Maine to the south. The Confederates attacked without waiting for the rest of the brigade. The 5th North Carolina also came out ahead of the other regiments and moved across open ground to join up with the 24th Virginia. Hill, seeing the change in Hancock’s position, instructed the other two regiments to move through the woods to find Hancock’s flank. Hancock’s Brigade repulsed the attack across the open. Hill arrived with his men and ordered a halt to the attack and for the regiments to withdraw. Hancock ordered his men to advance on the retreating enemy but pursued no furhter than the redoubt. Early lost over 400 men in a fight that lasted 30 minutes. Baldy Smith later arrived with the 3rd Vermont and later Davidson’s Brigade of Smith’s Division and BG Henry Naglee’s Brigade of Casey’s Division arrived.

McClellan finally arrived at 1700 to take charge of the battle and coordinate the actions of Hooker’s Division of Heintzelman’s III Corps, Smith, Couch and BG Silas Casey’s Divisions of Keyes’ IV Corps and Kearney’s Division of II Corps. Sedgwick and Richardson’s Divisions of Sumner’s II Corps were turned back to Yorktown. Longstreet had delayed the Union pursuit long enough to protect the evacuation of the Confederate trains.

Casuaties: US 2,239:CSA 1,603

Advance to Richmond

6 May Weather cleared about midnight. Franklin and Porter’s Divisions deployed to West Point. Franklin landed at Eltham Landing at 1300. They secured their beachhead and waited for reinforcements. Transports returned immediately for BG John Sedgwick’s Division. President Lincoln and Secretary of War Edwin Stanton arrived at Ft Monroe to inspect the progress of the campaign. Lincoln encouraged the Navy to open the James River for operations.

McClellan moved his supply depot to Yorktown.

7 May Clear. Johnston’s force passed north through Barnhamsville. He ordered BG W. H. C. Whiting’s Division to attack Eltham’s Landing. Whiting attacked Franklin’s Division at 0900 then withdrew. Franklin did not advance so failed to cut off Confederate retreat. Casualties: US 186:CSA 48.

8 May Clear. Roads began to dry. Army of Potomac was ordered to move with Stoneman’s Cavalry and Keyes’ IV Corps in advance

Union fleet led by the USS Monitor and gunboat Naugatauk shelled Sewell’s Point but retreated upon the appearance of the CSS Virginia. Lincoln ordered MG Wool to organize an amphibious force to take Norfolk.

9 May Clear. Anticipating this, BG B. Huger ordered the Confederate Navy to destroy Gosport navy yard and evacuate Norfolk. Upon arrival of supplies, the rest of the Army of the Potomac advanced.

Skirmish at New Kent Court House

10 May Clear. Federals landed and occupied Norfolk. Lead division of the Army of the Potomac established communication with Franklin at the Pamunkey River. West Point became the new supply depot.

11 May Windy. Crew scuttled CSS Virginia. James River opened to US Navy. Skirmish at Baltimore Crossroads near New Kent Court House.

12 May. Advance Guard of the Army of the Potomac arrived at White House

14 May Magnificent weather. Commander John Rogers squadron arrived at Harrison’s Landing on the James River.

15 May. Hard Rain about 1400. The Confederate Navy mounted two 8-inch and one 10-inch Columbiads, three 32-pounders and two 64-pounders on Fort Darling at Drewry’s Bluff. They sunk the CSS Jamestown and other vessels in the river to create an obstacle. The remaining Confederate James River fleet waited up river for any Union gunboats that slipped by. ommander John Rogers led the gunboat squadron with the USS Monitor and Naugatauk up James River to Richmond which were repelled by accurate fire. Lieutenant John Taylor Wood hailed the pilot house of the USS Monitor yelling, “Tell Captain Jeffers that is not the way to Richmond.”

McClellan’s headquarters established at Cumberland Landing as a temporary depot.

16 May Clearing. McClellan’s headquarters established at White House Landing on the Pamunkey with Franklin (I Corps), Porter (Heintzelman’s III Corps), Sykes, and Smith’s Divisions (Keyes’ IV Corps). Couch and Casey’s Divisions of IV Corps were at New Kent Court House, Hooker and Kearney’s Divisions (Heintzelman’s III Corps) were near Roper’s Church and Richardson and Sedgewick’s of II Corps were near Eltham’s Landing.

First transports arrived at White House Landing and it became the new supply depot

18 May Clear. Kearny’s Division of Heintzelman’s III Corps arrived at White House. Reorganization. McClellan reorganized the Army of the Potomac into five corps. He took Porter out from under Heintzelman’s III Corps and gave Porter BG George Sykes’ Division of Regulars to form V Corps. Porter promoted George W. Morell to command of his old division. McClellan took Baldy Smith’s division from Keyes’ IV Corps and gave it to Franklin to form VI Corps. Franklin promoted BG Henry Slocum to command of his division. Each corps only had two divisions. McClellan received a telegram informing him to extend his Army of Potomac to Richmond to establish communication with McDowell’s I Corps coming down from Fredericksburg.

19 May McClellan relocated his headquarters along with Porter’s V Corps and Franklin’s VI Corps to Tunstall’s Station, 5 miles from White House Landing. Richardson’s Division of II Corps at St James Church, one mile north of the Chickahominy.

20 May Rain. BG Henry M. Naglee’s Brigade of Casey’s Division, IV Corps, repaired Bottom’s Bridge and crossed the Chickahominy

21 May Army of Potomac moved into line along Chickahominy to protect the Richmond-York River Railroad. Franklin’s VI Corps was three miles from New Bridge on the Union right. Porter’s V Corps was behind it in reserve. Sumner’s II Corps was on the railroad three miles from the river. Keyes’ III Corps and Heintzelman’s IV Corps occupied the Union left on the New Kent Road near Bottom’s Bridge, ten miles from Richmond. Stoneman’s Cavalry was the extreme left flank.

22 May Rain. McClellan moved his headquarters to Cold Harbor. Couch’s Division, Keyes IV Corps arrived at White House Landing and encamped on the plane.

23 May Clear. Skirmishes at Ellerson’s Mill near Mechanicsville. McClellan again became ill and remained sick for several weeks. Remainder of Keyes IV Corps crossed Bottoms Bridge.

24 May Rained hard most of day. Skirmishes at New Bridge, Mechanicsville and Seven Pines. Lincoln sent McClellan a telegram that McDowell would march to Fredericksburg on 26 May then he sent another telegram stating that McDowell’s movement was suspended on account of T. J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s activities in the Shenendoah Valley. Naglee Brigade, of Casey’s Division, reconnoitered beyond Savage Station and struck rebel cavalry.

25 May Naglee’s Brigade of IV Corps took up position five miles in front of Seven Pines. Hooker’s Division of III Corps crossed at White Oak Swamp Bridge to guard it and Kearney’s Division of IV Corps moved to a position in front of Savage Station. Lincoln sent a telegram to McClellan with instructions to either attack Richmond or return to defend Washington.

26 May Rained all day. The York-Richmond Railroad was operational as far as the Chickahominy River. McClellan’s headquarters moved to New Bridge. He learned of a large Confederate force near Hanover Court House on the Virginia Central Railroad and ordered Porter’s V Corps to eliminate that force to clear the approach for McDowell’s I Corps. BG Stoneman’s Cavalry cut the Railroad in three places.

27 May Rained hard until noon. The Chickahominy River was rising. Battle of Hanover Court House. Fearing the Confederates wanted to threaten the Union right flank, Porter led his newly formed V Corps toward Hanover Court House and the Virginia Central Railroad. At 0400, BG G. W. Morell’s Division of Porter’s V Corps marched from New Bridge with an advance guard of two regiments of cavalry. Colonel G. K. Warren led his provisional brigade of Sykes’s Division of Regulars at the same hour from Old Church. They were followed an hour later by BG Stoneman’s Cavalry and the rest of Sykes’s Regulars. Morell’s Division arrived first and the 25th NY engaged the 28th NC at Peake’s Crossing around noon. Warren’s Brigade, slowed by mud, arrived later at 1500. Outnumbered the 28th NC fell back to Hannover Court House and Porter gave chase leaving BG John Martindale’s Brigade of Morell’s Division to guard the the New Bridge and Hannover Court House intersection. COL Lawrence O. Branch, with the 18th, 37th NC and 45th GA, attacked Martindale’s 2nd Maine, 25th and 44th NY at Kenny’s farm. Porter returned with his main force and Branch withdrew leaving this an early Union victory. This battle caused McClellan to keep Porter’s V Corps at Hannover Court House far from the rest of his Army along the Chickahominy.

28 May Hot. Richmond-York River Railroad repaired and opened for supplies. McClellan joined Porter on the battlefield.

29 May Fair weather. Ground drying up. Federal engineers completed Grapevine Bridge over Chickahominy. Convinced that McDowell’s I Corps was not going to join him, McClellan ordered Porter’s V Corps to withdraw from Hanover Court House that night. McDowell’s I Corps was sent to join Banks in the Valley to contain Jackson, so McClellan will not be reinforced as promised.

30 May Violent rain storm that night. The swollen Chickahominy River washed out all the bridges but Bottom Bridge and Grapevine Bridge. McClellan’s army was split by the River. Johnston planned to take advantage of the unfordable conditions of the river and washed out bridges by attacking the two of McClellan’s corps south of Chickahominy.

McClellan had Keyes’ IV Corps and Heintzelman’s III Corps defending in depth along the Williamsburg Road (Hwy 60), but Johnson may have only known of Keyes’ IV Corps. Johnston believed that the three corps north of the river would not be able to reinforce the battle. Johnson planned a three-pronged attack with BG B. Huger’s Division advancing south down the Charles City Road and attack the Union left flank up from the White Oak Swamp to cut off the line of retreat to Bottom’s Bridge. D. H. Hill’s Division would attack the Union center and BG Gustavus W. Smith’s Division would attack the Union right flank down Nine-Mile Road to cut off the line of retreat to the Grapevine Bridge. Johnston would place BG Longstreet in tactical command of the battle even though BG Smith had seniority. Johnston had issued the plan separately to each commander which aused confusion in interpretation. McClellan was in his tent suffering from malaria which had plagued the Army.

31 May Clearing. Battle of Seven Pines or Fair Oaks Station. For some reason, Longstreet advanced his division south instead of down Nine-Mile Road thus delaying Huger’s advance. Huger finally reached the road leading to Keyes’ rear, but did not know he was supposed to conduct a flank attack. At 1300, after waiting two hours for Huger’s signal, D. H. Hill’s Division supported by Whiting’s Division attacked BG Casey and Couch’s Divisions of Keyes’ IV Corps. McClellan ordered BG Sumner to have his II Corps ready to advance and smarting from his criticism for his hesitation during the Battle of Williamsburg, at 1415 hours Sumner had Sedgwick’s Division standing ready at the Grapevine Bridge. Four hours of hard fighting drove Keyes’ Corps back along the Williamsburg Road to their previous entrenchments at Allens Farm. At 1430, Heintzelman sent McClellan a message that he had not heard any report from Keyes. Kearny’s Division of III Corps reinforced Keyes. Smith’s Division did not attack until 1600 because it did not hear the other attack. McClellan was still sick in bed but joined the battle that afternoon and told Sumner to have his divisions standing by the bridges ready to einforce on order. When the order came, Sedgwick’s Division of Sumner’s II Corps raced across the Grapevine Bridge at 1400 hours just in time to drive back Smith’s assault at Fair Oaks. Huger did not arrive in time to participate. At the end of the day, D. H.Hill had driven Keyes’ IV Corps beyond Seven Pines and past the intersection of NineMile Road. BG BG Israel Richardson’s Division of II Corps along the railroad facing Hill’s left flank and BG John Sedgewick’s Division facing BG W. H. C. Whiting’s Division at Fair Oaks. Johnston arrived late in the day and was severely wounded. BG Smith assumed command Confederates engaged in the battle.

1 Jun. Fighting continued. BG Israel Richardson Division of II Corps attacked Hill’s left flank while Kearny and Hooker’s Divisions of III Corps advanced up the Williamsburg Road. At the end of the day the Union Army had regained battle ground of Seven Pines and had three corps south of the Chickahominy. General Robert E. Lee assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia.

“The shot that struck me down is the very best that has been fired for the Southern cause yet. For I possess in no degree the confidence of our government, and now they have in place one who does possess it.” Joseph Johnston

Department of Virginia was again placed under McClellan’s command. McClellan has ten bridges built over the Chickahominy. MG Wool was assigned to the command of the Middle Department and MG John A. Dix assumed command of Department of Virginia at Ft Monroe. Over two days fighting, the Union lost approximately 790 killed, 3,594 wounded, and 647 captured or missing; and the Confederates lost 980 killed, 4,749 wounded, and 405 captured or missing.

2 Jun Heavy thunderstorm at night. Secretary of War Stanton telegraphed McClellan that a large body of troops would be available after the conclusion of operations in the Shenandoah Valley.

3 Jun Heavy rain at night. Lee examined defenses around Richmond. He had the Army of Northern Virginia begin digging fortifications and earned the name, “King of Spades.” McClellan explored new lines of communication to the James River

4 Jun Hot, hard rain at 1900 hours.

5 Jun Rain. Lee proposed his bold plan to President Jefferson Davis to draw McClellan out of his entrenchments into a fight.

Secretary of War Stanton promised to send McClellan part of McDowell’s I Corps.

6 Jun Rain. MG T. J. “Stonewall” Jackson sent Lee a message that he was available for operations around Richmond if needed. Soldiers detailed to bury Confederate dead.

7 Jun McClellan asked again for McDowell’s I Corps. Burial of Confederate dead complete.

8 Jun Clear. McDowell was recalled from Shenandoah and ordered to move in direction of Richmond while still able to protect Washington.

Lee asked Jackson to let him know if his Corps could join him at Richmond.

9 Jun. Jackson’s Valley Campaign ended.

10 Jun Hard rain. McCall’s Division of I Corps embarked to join McClellan’s Army of the Potomac.

11 Jun Weather Cleared. After Jackson’s replay, Lee instructed Jackson to move to the Pamunkey River keeping his movements as secret as possible.

12 Jun McClellan moved his headquarters to Dr. Trent’s House near Alexander Bridge. Lee ordered J. E. B. Stuart to begin his scout of Federal position. Roads dry and in good order.

13 Jun BG George A. McCall’s Division of I Corps arrived to reinforce McClellan’s Army of the Potomac.

14 Jun Very hot.

15 Jun Stuart returned with skirmishes at Haw’s Shop, Old Church and Garlick’s Landing.

16 Jun Lee again directed Jackson’s Army to join him. To deceive the Union about Jackson’s intent, Lee sent him BG William H. C. Whiting and BG Alexander R. Lawton’s Brigades.

17 Jun Jackson left Harrisburg’s Brigade in the Valley and departed with his own, Whiting, D. H. Hill and Ewell’s Divisions.

18 Jun McClellan ordered shiploads of supplies moved from White House Landing to the James River.

1500 hours, Skirmishes near Fair Oaks and another near the Nine Mile Road. Jackson’s Corps left Mt Meridan.

19 Jun McCall’s Division was attached to Porter’s V Corps at Mechanicsville. McClellan moved Franklin’s VI Corps south across the Chickahominy. Heintzelman’s III Corps held the left flank anchored on White Oak Swamp, Sumner’s II Corps was in the center and Franklin’s V Corps was to Sumner’s right anchored on the Chickahominy. Keyes’ IV Corps was in reserve behind them. Porter’s V Corps remained the open right flank of the Army of the Potomac north of the Chickahominy in order to establish communication with McDowell’s I Corps if it every arrived. Casey’s Division guarded the supply depot at White House Landing.

Skirmish on the Charles City Road near Richmond.

Jackson’s Corps reached Mechum’s River Station on the Virginia Central Railroad. Jackson left by rail to meet with Lee at Richmond.

20 Jun Skirmish near New Bridge.

21 Jun Broiling hot.

22 Jun Splendid weather. Jackson’s Corps reached Frederick’s Hall Station 52 miles from Richmond.

23 Jun Afternoon thundershower and night. Lee held council with his commanders. Lee asked for a coordinated attack on Union right flank. Jackson promised that he would be in position on the morning of 26 June. Jackson’s Corps did not march because of the Sabbath.

24 Jun Hot and windy. Jackson linked up with his Army at Beaver Dam Station.

Information from a deserter arrived to McClellan that night confirming that Jackson was moving toward Richmond. McClellan had 92,500 to 105,400 men but aside from garrisons in the rear, railroad guard, non-combatants and extra duty, he estimated the number of men available for battle was only 75,000. Jackson brought 28,400 men boosting Lee’s total army to between 80,000 and 90,000 men.

25 Jun Rain in the morning. Jackson’s Corps reached Ashland Station 12 miles north of Richmond. The Union commanders were not certain of Jackson’s exact location. Battle of Oak Grove. McClellan ordered Heintzelman’s III Corps to drive Confederate positions from the Williamsburg Road. McClellan’s intent was to drive the enemy back onto his main defensive works so he could reconnoiter the enemy’s weaknesses. Hooker and Kearny’s Divisions made the main assault with support from I and IV Corps. No ground gained. McClellan was at the battle.

Seven Days Battles.

Lee’s bold plan was to threaten McClellan’s exposed right flank and his lines of communication to White House. Lee expected McClellan would retreat back down the Peninsula the way he had come.

26 Jun Battle of Mechanicsville. Porter had Sykes’ Division deployed on the left along the Chickahominy from New Bridge to Beaver Dam Creek. McCall’s Division defended Beaver Dam Creek on the right with the bridges near Mechanicsville and at Ellerson’s Mill the only two bridge crossings. BG John F. Reynolds’ Brigade was on the right, BG Truman Seymour’s on the left and BG George Meade’s Brigade was in reserve. Morell’s Division was the V Corps reserve. The infantry were dug in rifle-pits along the east bank of the creek. McCall’s forward pickets stretched from Mechanicsville Bridge to Meadow Bridge on the Chickahominy. Cavalry under BG Stoneman, BG P. St. George Cooke and COL John F. Farnsworth screened the right flank from Meadow Bridge to the Pamunkey. Lee ordered A. P. Hill’s Division to attack McCall along the Beaver Dam Creek and send BG L. O’B. Branch’s Brigade north to link up with Jackson for a coordinated attack on the Union rear forcing them from the position. Hill’s Division was encamped on the opposite side of the Chickahominy near Meadow Bridge. Branch did not link up with Jackson until 1000. At noon, Hill began to move forward. At 1230, his division drove the Union pickets back from the Chickahominy. At 1400, McCall’s pickets fired a cannon as a prearranged signal to announce the enemy was crossing the Chickahominy. As planned the tents were struck, wagons packed and sent back to cross the Chickahominy. At 1500, Hill became impatient waiting for word from Jackson so he ordered his five brigades forward. Crossing the Meadow and Mechanicsville Bridges, they met light resistance from McCall’s outposts as they fell back. The Confederate brigades in front of Reynolds fell back under heavy artillery fire, realizing that a direct frontal assault was too costly. Branch’s Brigade finally arrived. By late afternoon, two regiments of BG Roswell S. Ripley’s Brigade tried to flank Seymour’s Brigade at Ellerson’s Mills but were repulsed at the border of the stream with heavy losses. The fighting at the mill continued for hours until dark. BG George B. Morell’s Division of Porter’s V Corps moved up to support on McCall’s right.

Casualties: US 250:CS 2,000

Whiting’s Brigade of Jackson’s Corps attacked McCall’s pickets confirming Jackson’s presence. McCall’s men destroyed the Tolopotomy Bridge but Jackson’s troops quickly repaired it.

Secretary of War Stanton telegraphed McClellan that McDowell, Banks, and Fremont would be consolidated into the Army of Virginia under the command of MG John Pope

27 Jun McClellan joined Porter early in the fight and remained with Porter until 0100. Fearing an attack by Jackson in his right flank, at 0300 McClellan ordered Porter’s V Corps to fall back to Gaines’ Mill to protect the bridges across the Chickahominy. At Porter’s request, McClellan asked the other corps commanders to send any units they could spare. Sumner sent French and Meagher’s Brigades of Richardson’s Division. V Corps fell back before sunrise destroying the bridges behind them.

Battle of Gaine’s Mill. Porter’s V Corps formed a continuous line of defense behind the Powhite Creek with Morrell’s Division anchored on Boatswain Swamp on the left and Syke’s Regulars wrapped around to McGehee’s House and Elder Swamp on the right. Each brigade had two regiments of infantry in reserve and the division artillery was posted on the plateau to sweep the avenues of approach and the fields upon which they opened. Wherever possible, guns were placed between brigades and on higher ground. Cooke’s Cavalry guarded the left rear in the valley of the Chickahominy to collect all stragglers from the battle but not to join the battle. Stoneman’s cavalry and infantry were too far north to be of any use so Porter ordered them to make their way to White House Landing and then rejoin the army as best they could. Porter established his corps headquarters at the Adams’ House. Morell established his division headquarters at the Watt’s House. McCall’s Division formed the V Corps reserve near the artillery reserve as a second line of defense behind Morell. The siege guns were taken to Franklin’s VI Corps south of New Bridge to cover enemy approach up the valley. Porter left skirmishers and artillery at Beaver Dam Creek to conceal his withdrawal. He believed he was outnumbered three to one.

Lee’s objective was to uncover New Bridge and establish close communication between his forces defending Richmond and his six divisions north of the Chickahominy. As soon as A. P. Hill learned of Porter’s withdrawal, his division advanced in column. COL Thomas Cass’ 9th Massachusetts of Griffin’s Brigade delayed Hill’s crossing at Gaines’ Mill from 1230 to 1400. After crossing, BG Maxcy Gregg’s Brigade then came on line first. Branch’s Brigade deployed to the right of Gregg, followed by BG R. H. Anderson, BG Charles ield and BG James J. Archer’s Divisions lining up to Gregg’s right. Hill’s Division began its attack on the Union center, Sykes and Morell’s Divisions, at 1430 and fought for two hours alone. Porter asked McClellan for help who sent BG Henry W. Slocum’s Division of Franklin’s VI Corps forward. Adam’s House soon became the Corps’ hospital and at 1400 Porter moved his headquarters forward to Watt’s House. Two hours after the fighting began, Longstreet’s Division arrived and deployed to the right of Hill. Anderson and BG George Pickett’s Brigades led his assault. Jackson’s Corps took a wrong road and had to turn back, delaying his arrival on the battlefield. At about 1400, Jackson’s Corps arrived at Old Cold Harbor in front of Sykes’ Division. Jackson deployed his own division to the right, BG R. S. Ewell’s Division in the center and D. H. Hill’s Division on his extreme left and attacked. BG William H. C. Whiting’s Division deployed to Jackson’s extreme right just to the left of A. P. Hill’s Division at about 1600 and went into action.

At 1600, Slocum’s Division arrived to reinforce Porter’s V Corps but was immediately recalled. The Confederates threw successive waves of regiments against the Union positions but could not dislodge the Union defense. As each Union regiment exhausted its ammunition, it was replaced by a regiment from the reserves. At 1700, Cooke’s Cavalry moved up without orders to the crest of the hill behind the artillery. Around the same time, there was an intermission in the Confederate attack on Morell’s front. Again at 1800, the battlefield fell silent.

At 1830, Meagher’s Irish and French’s Brigades of Richardson’s Division, Sumner’s II Corps arrived. At the same time, the Confederate attack against Morell renewed as the sun set. It seemed that the Confederates had an inexhaustible reserve of fresh troops. Whiting instructed Hood and Law to have their brigades charge across the ravine at double-quick time without firing. At about 1900, Law lined his regiments up on the left with the 11th Mississippi and 4th Alabama in front and 2nd Mississippi and 6th North Carolina behind. Hood’s Texas Brigade lined up, 4th Texas on the extreme right next to the 18th Georgia, the 5th Texas in the center and the 1st Texas and the Hampton Legion on the left. They approached the brow of the hill and fired. Hood then ordered his Texans to their feet and to fix bayonets. On Hood’s command, they charged down the hill and across the draw not hesitating to reload and fire. Smoke obscured the battlefield. When within ten paces of the Union positions, Morell’s infantry fell back. The Confederates followed them out onto an open field. The artillery withrew. Morell’s Division fell back in a rout and rallied behind Adam’s House where they met French and Meagher’s Brigades. The Confederates pursued all the way to the reserve of artillery.

The 11th Pennsylvania Reserves and 2nd New Jersey of Reynold’s Brigade, McCall’s Division had replaced regiments that had fallen back on the extreme left of Sykes’ Division. After four hours of fighting on the right, D. H. Hill also drove Sykes’ Regulars at the McGehee House back capturing eight pieces of artillery. An hour after the regiments on their left and right had fallen back, the 11th Pennsylvania and 2nd New Jersey fell back but ran into the Texans. Realizing that they were surrounded, they surrendered. At 2100, the 4th US Infantry with Weed and Tidball’s Batteries withdrew. Cooke’s Cavalry crossed the Chickahominy. BG Reynolds was also captured. He fell asleep between the woods and the Chickahominy. When he awoke, his troops were gone and the bridge was destroyed.

Porter had around 30,000 men while Lee’s attacking force was estimated between 40,000 and 70,000 men. Losses: CS 3,284:US 6,837 and 22 artillery pieces; CS: 589 KIA, 2761WIA, 24 MIA, US: 894 KIA, 3107 WIA, 2,836 MIA

That night McClellan assembled his corps commanders at his headquarters at Dr. Trent’s House and outlined his plan to fall back on the James. The objective of the withdrawal was to protect the slow movement of the trains down a single road.

28 Jun At 0200, the rear guard of Sykes’ Regulars (4th US Infantry) crossed the Chickahominy and destroyed the bridges. McClellan abandoned his supply line along the RichmondYork River Railroad and established a new one to Harrison’s Landing on the James River. McClellan moved 5,000 wagons and 2,500 head of cattle to the James. The rail engine and cars were set on fire and run at full speed into the Chickahominy River. All stores that ould not be transported were also set on fire that night. Sumner’s II Corps, Heintzelman’s III Corps and Franklin’s VI Corps held their original positions guarding the railroad while Porter’s V Corps and Keyes’ IV Corps withdrew to the south

29 Jun Rain at night. Lee anticipated McClellan’s intentions. He directed Huger and Magruder’s Division to advance east along the Williamsburg Road. Lee directed Longstreet to cross the New Bridge and move east along the Darbytown Road on the extreme right. Lee’s intent was to intercept McClellan’s line of retreat to the James. Jackson would cross the Chickahominy at the Grape Vine Bridge and follow McClellan’s southerly retreat. Repairing the destroyed bridges delayed Jackson crossing the Chickahominy until the 29th

Battle at Allen’s Farm. Magruder ordered Griffin’s Brigade to advance against Sumner’s II Corps and remove any obstruction on the railroad so as to advance his rifled railway gun. He was stopped by COL Brooks’ 37th Pennsylvania which was reinforced by the 71st New York and four field pieces of Hazzard’s battery. Magruder’s force was repelled three times.

Battle of Savage’s Station. Franklin’s VI Corps held McClellan’s right flank anchored on the Chickahominy with McCall’s Division on the left and Smith’s on the right. Slocum’s Division was in reserve at the forward supply base at Savage Station. Franklin discovered that a mile gap existed between his left and Sumner’s right who was still engaged in battle. Franklin directed Smith’s Division to fall back to Savage Station and requested Sumner to fall back and line up on him. Smith’s line consisted of Hancock’s Brigade on the right and Brooks’ on the left with Davidson’s Brigade, commanded by COL Taylor, in reserve. Sumner’s II Corps fell back on line with Richards on the left and Sedgewick on the right. Sumner had requested Heintzelman’s III Corps to fall back on his left but Heintzelman withdrew south across White Oak Swamp, claiming that there was not enough room for his Corps.

Magruder pressed his attack supported by his railway gun. Shortly before dusk, Magruder’s force pressed its final assault and the fight lasted for thirty minutes. The Union line held. Losses: CS 4,000:US 3,000.

That afternoon, McClellan ordered Keyes to fall back during the night to Malvern Hill. McClellan spent the day supervising the withdrawal of his trains. He moved his headquarters from Savage Station to south of the White Oak Swamp.

30 Jun Hot. Keyes’ IV Corps with all its trains reached Malvern Hill. After the fighting at Savage Station, McClellan ordered Sumner’s II Corps and Franklin’s VI Corps to fall back south of White Oak Swamp. They destroyed the bridges at 0500 that morning. The Union field hospital at Savage Station with 2,500 sick and wounded and 500 medical personnel was left to fall into enemy hands. Everything else was south of the swamp. Franklin’s VI Corps was responsible for defending the crossing. The last of the trains reached Malvern Hill at 1600 and continued moving to Haxall’s Landing. Order of retreat; Porter’s V Corps, Heintzelman’s III Corps, Sumner’s II Corps and Franklin’s VI Corps. Keyes’ IV Corps was already at Malvern Hill. Franklin’s VI Corps held Jackson off as the rear guard at White Oak Swamp

Battle of Glendale. Glendale was the major intersection south of White Oak Swamp. Darbytown Road ran into New Market and Long Bridge Roads which intersected with Charles City Road and Quaker Road at Glendale. McClellan ordered McCall’s Division to deploy on line west of Glendale along the New Market Road. McCall placed Meade’s Brigade on the right and Seymour’s on the left with the 5th Pennsylvania in reserve. This was all that remained of Reynolds’ Brigade. Kearney’s Division of Heintzelman’s III Corps was eployed to cover the space between New Market and Charles City Roads. Kearney deployed Robinson’s Brigade on the left, Birney’s on the right and Berry’s in reserve. Hooker’s Division of Heintzelman’s II Corps deployed on line to the right of Sumner’s II Corps behind the first line of defense.

At 1430, Field and BG William D. Pender’s Brigades of A. P. Hill’s Division attacked McCall’s Division. The fight lasted two hours and McCall’s men fell back under great pressure. At 1600, the battle reached Kearney’s line. BG Heintzelman rode over to Sumner’s headquarters to make preparations to stop the turning of the left flank. BG William Burns’ Brigade of Sedgewick’s Division (III Corps) rushed forward to meet the enemy. Franklin’s VI Corps had finally arrived from White Oak Swamp having delayed Jackson’s crossing. Heintzelman sent Slocum’s Brigade of Franklin’s VI Corps to reinforce Kearney. The line held and protected an orderly retreat of the Army of the Potomac. Losses: US 10 artillery pieces.

BG McCall was captured by Major W. Roy Mason of BG Field’s staff. He remembered three or four men riding up to him in the dark. “’What command is this?’ he [McCall] asked. ‘General Field’s sir,’ was my answer. ‘General Field! I don’t know him.’ ‘Perhaps not, as you are evidently in the wrong place.’ He at once turned to retreat, spurring his horse, and I gave the alarm. A soldier of the 47th Virginia (S. Brooke Rollins) now came forward and seized the bridle of the horse, saying to the rider, ‘Not so fast.’” Sykes’ Brigade of Regulars of Porter’s V Corps reached Malvern Hill at 1100 and set up his artillery. MG Theophilus H. Holmes’ Division and BG Henry A. Wise’s Brigade of the Department of North Carolina followed and attacked but were severely repulsed. They concurred that it was madness to attack an enemy so strongly posted on such open terrain. They did not participate in the Confederate attack the next day.

Once Franklin’s VI Corps had completed its withdrawal, Heintzelman ordered his III Corps down the road. At 2100, Sumner then reluctantly fell in behind Heintzelman’s Corps to withdraw.

1 Jul Battle of Malvern Hill. Heintzelman reached Malvern Hill at 0130. By morning the entire Army of the Potomac had reached Malvern Hill. McClellan had assigned the divisions and corps their places before they arrived forming a semicircle arch between the two valleys. BG A. A. Humphreys, who had examined the ground the day before, put the units into position. Porter established his headquarters one mile back at the Malvern House where he also set up a signal station to communicate with the gun boats in the James River. Morell’s Division of Porter’s V Corps lined up west of the Quaker Road with his headquarters at the Crew House. Griffin’s Brigade lined up in advance with the artillery, Martindale’s Brigade next and Butterfield’s Brigade behind it. COL McQuade’s 14th New York Volunteers (Zuoaves) with a two-gun section of Weeden’s Battery faced west overlooking the Turkey Run valley. Buchanan and Lovell’s Brigades of Sykes’ Division lined up behind Morell’s Division. COL Gouverneur K. Warren’s Brigade (600 men remaining) guarded the Richmond River Road farther back down the valley below Malvern House. McCall’s Division (then commanded by Seymoure) was behind Porter. Couch’s Division of Keyes’ IV Corps lined up from the Quaker Road east to a ravine below the West House. Couch established his headquarters at the West House. Heintzelman’s III Corps lined up in the center from the ravine to the wood at West House with Kearny on the left and Hooker’s Brigade on the right. Franklin’s VI Corps extended to the right of Hooker wrapping around to cover the right flank. Sumner’s II Corps lined up behind them along the Binford House. BG Keyes with Peck’s Division guarded the bridge at Carter’s Mill. Porter massed sixty pieces of artillery in front of his infantry in a crescent-shaped line from the Quaker Road to the Crew House. Heavy batteries of 20- and 32-pounders lined up behind the infantry commanding the whole plateau.

Lee believed the Union Army was in rout and saw Malvern Hill as a place to complete the destruction of McClellan’s Army. Lee approached Malvern Hill with Jackson’s Corps on his left and Magruder’s Corps with Huger’s Division on his right. Jackson’s divisions lined up with Whiting on his left, Ewell in the center and D. H. Hill on his right. Armistead and Wright’s Brigades of Huger’s Division lined up to the right of Hill. Behind them lined up the rest of Huger’s Division and Magruder’s Corps. At 1000, Confederate skirmishers and artillery fired on the Union line for two hours. The Union forces did not return fire.

At 1300, Whiting and Hill’s Divisions advanced onto the plain in front of Morell and Couch. Union artillery immediately drove them back. Lee ordered the attack to begin with a yell by Armistead’s Brigade but left the execution of the attack to his division commanders

The subsequent attacks drove in Berdan’s Sharpshooters. Magruder brought up a battery to cover one regiment’s charge against Couch’s left. Porter’s Grand Battery quickly repulsed it. Magruder ordered three more charges with each one repulsed. The last one by Armistead’s Division at 1500, left a stand of colors of the 14th Virginia upon the field. The sound of the artillery had drowned out the yell of his men. Unable to advance or recede they hid in a depression in the ground until nightfall. These attacks were uncoordinated making each of them easy targets for the concentrated fire of Union artillery.

At 1600, a lull fell over the battlefield reminding Porter of the lull before the final attack at Gaines’ Mill. He reinforced McQuade with three more batteries of artillery. Armistead and Hill begged for more artillery but none was furnished. At 1730, Magruder became impatient waiting for 30 pieces of artillery and ordered Armistead’s Brigade to advance along with his own division. Hill heard the shouting followed by musket fire on his right (where Armistead was) and ordered his division to charge against Couch’s right. The Union artillery checked their advance as they emerged from the cover of the woods. Brigades under Couch pursued after the retreating Confederates and took unnecessary casualties. Morell’s Division maintained steady discipline. Magruder, at the same time, advanced with his three divisions in echelon along the meadow to attack Porter’s left at the Crew House. The 14th New York and its artillery held off three attacks. Heavy fighting on Morell’s left front caused regiments to fall back for more ammunition. BG Porter personally led Meagher’s Irish Brigade of Sumner’s II Corps to replace them. BG Sumner sent Caldwell’s Brigade of Richardson’s Division to fill in the gap in the center line. BG Heintzelman sent in Sickles’ Brigade of Hooker’s Division to reinforce the center. By 2100, the Confederate forces that had been repulsed and those hiding in the depression withdrew under the cover of darkness. BG Porter considered the battle won and sent a message to McClellan, who had spent the day on a gun boat on the James, that there was no more need to withdraw. At the same time, McClellan had sent a message for everyone to withdraw to Harrison’s Landing. COL Averall’s 3rd Pennsylvania Cavalry and the Brigade of Regulars under LTC Buchanan remained behind as the rear guard. Total casualties of the Seven Days Battles: KIA: CS 2,823:US 1,734, WIA: CS 13,703:US 8,062, MIA: CS 3,223: US 6,053, Total CS 19,749:15,849.

2 Jul Hard Rain at night. McClellan continued to retreat to Harrison’s Landing destroying Turkey Bridge.

3 Jul Skirmish near Herring Creek.

4 Jul Skirmish at Westover.

5-6 Jul Confederates shelled Harrison’s Landing and federal shipping in the James.

8 Jul Lincoln arrived at Harrison’s Landing to consult with McClellan and assess the condition of the Army. Confederate artillery again fired on Union position but Lee withdrew further up river to block any attack

9 Jul Lincoln conferred with Corps commanders on their opinion about remaining in the Peninsula. 3-2 in favor of remaining.

10 Jul Federals reconnoitered toward White Oak Swamp. Skirmishers exchanged fire

11 Jul Federals reconnoitered past Charles City Court House. Lincoln appointed MG Henry W. Halleck general-in-chief.

22 Jul Halleck arrived in Washington.

25 Jul Halleck arrived at Harrison’s Landing to confer with McClellan. McClellan suggested that he cross the James and attack Petersburg to cut Richmond off from the South. Halleck advised against it. McClellan requested 30,000 more soldiers to attack Richmond. Halleck only had 20,000 available. McClellan estimated tht Lee had 200,000 men.

26 Jul McClellan informed Halleck that he would accept the 20,000 men and that an attack had a chance of success.

27 Jul Halleck returned to Washington to find a request dated the day before from McClellan for 35,000 to 55,000 more men than the agreed. Out of patience with McClellan, Lincoln directed Halleck to order the Army of the Potomac back to Washington.

30 Jul War Department ordered McClellan to evacuate his sick.

31 Jul – 1 Aug Confederates attacked Federal camps between Shirley Plantation and Harrison’s Landing.

2-8 Aug Federals reoccupied Malvern Hill.

3 Aug Halleck ordered McClellan to withdraw his Army from the Peninsula and move to Aquia Creek near Fredricksburg.

4 Aug McClellan received Halleck’s order to withdraw under protest.

6 Aug Skirmish at Malvern Hill.

14-15 Aug III and V Corps withdrew from Harrison’s Landing.

14-19 Aug Cavalry covered withdrawal of Army of Potomac

20 Aug V Corps embarked at Newport News.

22 Aug III Corps embarked from Yorktown.

23 Aug VI Corps embarked from Yorktown.

26 Aug II Corps embarked from Ft Monroe.

Army of The Potomac, 18 May 1862

II Corps

BG Edwin V. “Bull” Sumner

Division Commander Brigade Commander Brigade Commander Brigade Commander
BG Isreal B. Richardson’s First Division BG John C. Caldwell BG Thomas F. Meagher BG William H. French
BG John Sedgewick’s Second Division BG Alfred Sulley BG William W. Burns BG N. J. T. Dana

III Corps

BG Samuel P. Heintzelman

Division Commander Brigade Commander Brigade Commander Brigade Commander
BG Joseph Hooker’s Second Division BG Cuvier Grover BG Daniel E. Sickles COL Joseph B. Carr
BG Philip Kearney’s Third Division BG John C. Robinson BG David B. Birney BG Hiram G. Berry

IV Corps

BG Erasmus D. Keyes

Division Commander Brigade Commander Brigade Commander Brigade Commander
BG Darius N. Couch’s First Division BG Albion P. Howe BG John J. Abercombie BG Innis N. Palmer
BG John J. Peck’s Second Division BG Henry M. Naglee BG Henry W. Wessells

V Corps

BG Fitz John Porter

Division Commander Brigade Commander Brigade Commander Brigade Commander
BG George W. Morell’s First Division BG John H. Martindale BG Charles Griffin BG Daniel Butterfield
BG George Syke’s Second (Regulars) Division COL Robert C. Buchanan LTC William Chapman COL Gouverneur K. Warren
BG George B. McCall’s Third Division (attached from I Corps) BG John F. Reynolds BG George G. Meade BG Truman Seymour

Army of The Potomac, 8 Mar 1862

I Corps

BG Irvin McDowell

Division Commander Brigade Commander Brigade Commander Brigade Commander
BG William B. Franklin’s Division BG Philip Kearney BG Henry W. Slocum BG John Newton
BG George A. McCall’s Division BG John F. Reynolds BG George Meade BG Ord
BG King’s Division Bde BG Patrick BG Auger

II Corps

BG Edwin V. “Bull” Sumner

Division Commander Brigade Commander Brigade Commander Brigade Commander
BG Isreal B. Richardson’s First Division BG Howard BG Thomas F. Meagher BG William H. French
BG John Sedgewick’s Second Division BG Gorman BG William W. Burns BG N. J. T. Dana

III Corps

BG Samuel P. Heintzelman

Division Commander Brigade Commander Brigade Commander Brigade Commander
BG Fitz John Porter’s Division BG John H. Martindale BGT George W. Morell BG Daniel Butterfield
BG Joseph Hooker’s Second Division BG Cuvier Grover BG Daniel E. Sickles COL Joseph B. Carr
BG Philip Kearney’s Third Division BG John C. Robinson BG David B. Birney BG Hiram G. Berry

IV Corps

BG Erasmus D. Keyes

Division Commander Brigade Commander Brigade Commander Brigade Commander
BG Darius N. Couch’s First Division COL Julius W. Adams BG John J. Peck BG Charles Devens
BG William F. “Baldy” Smith’s Division BG Winfield S. Hancock BG W. T. H. Brooks BG John W. Davidson
BG Silas Casey’s Division BG William H. Keim BG Innis N. Palmer BG Henry M. Naglee

McClellan’s Logistics package

Types Types Types Types
389 vessels
1,224 vehicles
14,592 animals
121,500 men
5 locomotives
80 rail cars.
103 Siege cannons: 100- 200 pds Parrot guns 8–13-inch seacoast mortars 4.5-inch Rodman siege rifles