On 3 December 1942, the 470th Quartermaster Truck Regiment was activated at Camp McCain, Mississippi. On 3 November 1943, the 3rd Battalion was redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 157th Quartermaster Battalion, Mobile. It participated in the campaigns of Normandy, Northern France, Rhineland, Ardennes-Alsace, and Central Europe. The battalion was inactivated in France on 25 June 1946.
On 2 August 1946, the unit was redesignated as the Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 126th Transportation Truck Battalion and allotted to the National Guard of West Virginia. With the outbreak of the Korean War, the battalion headquarters was activated at Fort Pickett, Virginia, on 11 September 1950. The battalion participated in Exercise Southern Pines in 1951 and Longhorn in 1952 then Snowstorm in 1953.
On 15 August 1952, HHC, 48th Transportation Highway Group was activated at Fort Eustis and provided command and control for the 4th Transportation Battalion and the two new truck battalions at Fort Eustis along with the 502nd Traffic Regulating Group. The 6th Truck Battalion was activated on 15 August 1952 and the 126th Truck Battalion moved to Fort Eustis from Fort Pickett, Virginia, on 1 December 1952. The 48th Transportation Group (Truck) supported the Transportation Training Command.
On 16 September 1954, the 48th Group made plans to attach the 17th Medium Truck, 597th Medium Truck, 652nd Medium Truck, 523rd Light Truck and the 557th Heavy Lift Companies to the 126th Battalion. The Group headquarters believed that this would balance the number of companies in the three truck battalions. The 126th Battalion provided command and control for the following companies:
With the end of the Korean War, the 126th Battalion prepared for release from active duty and in 1954, it transferred the 523rd and 557th Truck Companies to the 4th Battalion and the 165th Truck Company to the 6th Battalion. The 652nd Truck Company departed to support Operation SUNEC ’54 in Greenland. The 126th Battalion was reduced to only a headquarters company. However, on 9 February 1955, the 126th Battalion was released from active duty and returned to the West Virginia National Guard. All its personnel and equipment was transferred to the 522nd Transportation Battalion, which was activated on the same day. The 652nd Truck Company was also released from active duty on 10 March and the active duty personnel and equipment were transferred to the newly activated 126th Transportation Company. The 165th Truck Company was also released from active duty later that year.